Applying an unfolding model to the stages and processes of change
The purpose of this study was to utilize the graded unfolding model (GUM) (Roberts, 1995; Roberts & Laughlin, 1996) to examine the interaction between the stages of change (SOC) and the processes of change (POC) for smoking cessation (SC). Although an abundance of research has examined the transtheoretical model (TTM) and SC, the POC remains one of the least investigated dimensions of the TTM. Only one study has applied an item response theory model, the GUM, to the examination of the SOC and POC (Noel, 1999). This study attempted to replicate and extend the findings of Noel (1999) and provides additional external validity evidence for the SOC and the POC for SC.The TTM posits that people undergoing change will use different processes and strategies as they proceed through the SOC and that each POC appears to reach peak use at different stages. Thus, the POC appear to follow an inverse-U-shaped pattern (Noel, 1999).Responses to the SOC and 40-item POC for SC were collected from young adults. Analysis of the data using the GGUM (Roberts, 2000) demonstrated the applicability of the GUM and provides additional external validity of the POC for SC. More specifically, six POC were ordered as expected according to results of longitudinal studies. Four POC were found to be out of order, however, this could be due to sample characteristics or reduced validity of items (due to smoking law changes, some items may no longer be valid). Helping Relationships and Stimulus Control appeared together out of order. This finding replicates Noel (1999) and further research is needed to examine the ordering of these POC. The GUM was also found to fit the POC data better than other item response theory models.
DegreeMaster of Education (M.Ed.)
DepartmentEducational Psychology and Special Education
ProgramEducational Psychology and Special Education
Copyright DateJanuary 2007
Process of Change
Stages of Change