## Non-negative polynomials on compact semi-algebraic sets in one variable case

##### Abstract

Positivity of polynomials, as a key notion in
real algebra, is one of the oldest topics. In a given context, some polynomials can be represented in a form that reveals their positivity immediately, like sums of squares. A large body of literature deals with the question which positive polynomials can be represented in such a way.The milestone in this development was Schm"udgen's solution of the moment problem for compact semi-algebraic sets. In 1991, Schm"udgen proved that if the associated basic closed semi-algebraic set $K_{S}$ is compact, then any polynomial which is strictly positive on $K_{S}$ is contained in the preordering $T_{S}$.Putinar considered a further question: when are `linear representations' possible? He provided the first step in answering this question himself in 1993. Putinar proved if the quadratic module $M_{S}$ is archimedean, any polynomial which is strictly positive on $K_{S}$ is contained in $M_{S}$, i.e., has a linear representation.In the present thesis, we concentrate on the linear representations in the one variable polynomial ring. We first investigate the relationship of the two conditions in Schm"udgen's Theorem and Putinar's Criterion: $K_{S}$ compact and $M_{S}$ archimedean. They are actually equivalent. We find another proof for this result and hereby we can improve Schm"udgen's Theorem in the one variable case.Secondly, we investigate the relationship of $M_{S}$ and $T_{S}$. We use elementary arguments to prove in the one variable case when $K_{S}$ is compact, they are equal.Thirdly, we present Scheiderer's Main Theorem with a detailed proof. Scheiderer established a local-global principle for the polynomials non-negative on $K_{S}$ to be contained in $M_{S}$ in 2003. This principle which we call Scheiderer's Main Theorem here extends Putinar's Criterion.Finally, we consider Scheiderer's Main Theorem in the one variable case, and give a simplified version of this theorem. We also apply this Simple Version of the Main Theorem to give some elementary proofs for existing results.

##### Degree

Master of Science (M.Sc.)##### Department

Mathematics and Statistics##### Program

Mathematics and Statistics##### Supervisor

Marshall, Murray; Kuhlmann, Salma##### Committee

McQuillan, Ian; Martin, John R.; Bremner, Murray R.##### Copyright Date

December 2006##### Subject

Linear Representation

Non-negative Polynomials