The Estuary Bison Pound site in southwestern Saskatchewan
Adams, Gary F.
The Estuary Bison Pound site is located near the head of a large coulee on the south bank of the South Saskatchewan River, just below its confluence with the Red Deer River. Excavations in 1971 and 1972 revealed two major occupation levels. The upper, Level I, is likely a processing or habitation component, characterized by small stone tools, completely butchered bone, hearths and a large refuse pit. The lower, Level II, includes a portion of a bison pound and a butchering area, used at least three times in rapid succession. While Level I is represented by an assemblage that conforms exactly to the Old Woman's phase, Level II has aspects of both that and Avonlea phase material. Radiocarbon dates suggest that there is only 100 to 200 years distance between these two occupations. Together, they present strong evidence to suggest that the Old Women's phase developed from Avonlea.