Tolerogenic CD4-8- Dendritic Cells and their Conversion into Immunogenic Ones via TLR9 Signaling
It is clear that dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for priming of T cell responses against tumors. However, the distinct roles DC subsets play in regulation of T cell responses in vivo are largely undefined. In this study, we investigated the capacity of ovalbumin (OVA)-presenting CD4–8–, CD4+8–, or CD4–8+ DCs (OVA-pulsed DC (DCOVA)) from mouse spleen in stimulation of OVA-specific T cell responses. Our data show that each DC subset stimulated proliferation of allogeneic and autologous OVA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro, but that the CD4–8– DCs did so only weakly. Both CD4+8– and CD4–8+ DCOVA induced strong tumor-specific CD4+ Th1 responses and fully protective CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated antitumor immunity, whereas CD4–8– DCOVA, which were less mature and secreted substantial transforming growth factor (TGF- ) upon coculture with T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic OT II CD4+ T cells, induced the development of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting CD4+ T regulatory 1 (Tr1) cells. Transfer of these Tr1 cells, but not T cells from cocultures of CD4–8– DCOVA and IL-10–/– OT II CD4+ T cells, into CD4–8+ DCOVA-immunized animals abrogated otherwise inevitable development of antitumor immunity. Taken together, CD4–8– DCs stimulate development of IL-10-secreting CD4+ Tr1 cells that mediated immune suppression, whereas both CD4+8– and CD4–8+ DCs effectively primed animals for protective CD8+ CTL-mediated antitumor immunity. Different DC subsets play distinct roles in immune responses. CD4-8- DCs secreting TGF-â stimulate CD4+ regulatory T type 1 (Trl) cell responses leading to inhibition of CD8 CTL responses and antitumor immunity. In this study, we explored the potential effect of three stimuli CpG, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-CD40 antibody in conversion of CD4-8- DC-induced tolerance. We demonstrated that when CD4-8- DCs were isolated from overnight culture and cultured for another 8 hrs in AIM-V plus recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) (15-20 ng/ml) and OVA (0.1 mg/ml) with CpG (5 ug/ml), LPS (2 ug/ml) and anti-CD40 antibody (10 ug/ml), their phenotype became more mature compared with the freshly isolated ones. CpG is the only agent that stimulates the DCs to secrete significant level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-15 (IL-15); DNA array analyses also indicate that CpG stimulates higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 mRNA. CpG treatment most efficiently converts the tolerogenic DCs into immunogenic ones which stimulated the OTII CD4+ T cell to become T helper type 1 (Th1) and T helper type 17 (Th17) rather Tr1, while the other two stimulator-treated DCs could not induce Th17 response. Their vaccination also induced the strongest antitumor CTL responses and protective immunity against tumor cell challenge. When CD4-8- DCs were isolated from IL-6 knock out (IL-6-/-) mice, CpG-treated DCOVA vaccination almost completely lost their animal protection capacity. Wild type B6 DCOVA-vaccinated IL-15 receptor knock out (IL-15R-/-) mice can only provide up to 30% protection against tumor challenge. Those results indicate that IL-6/ IL-l5-induced Th17 plays a critical role in their conversion. Taken together, our findings indicate that CpG treatment is the most efficient agent that can convert tolerogenic DCs into immunogenic ones and induce long-lasting antitumor immunity. We previously demonstrated that the nonspecific CD4+ T cells can acquire antigen-specific DC-released exosomes (EXO) and these CD4+ T cells with acquired exosomal MHC I peptide complex (pMHC I) can stimulate antigen-specific CD8+ CTL responses. In my project we have found that CD4-8-DCs could induce regulatory T cell type 1(Tr1) response, thus it would be very necessary to know whether regulatory T cells would change their antigen specificity if they got the membrane complex from DC through coculture or DC-derived exosome pulsing. During the beginning of my regulatory T cell project, we found that CD8+CD25+ Tr were much more easily expanded, while CD4+CD25+ Tr usually began to die just after 3 days in vitro culture and it’s very hard to get enough cells for further research. Therefore, CD8+CD25+ were used as a model Tr cells in the following project. To assess whether the nonspecific CD8+CD25+ Tr cells can acquire antigen-specificity via acquired exosomal pMHC I, we purified CD8+CD25+ Tr cells from wild-type C57BL/6 mice and OVA-pulsed DCOVA-released EXOOVA expressing pMHC I complexes. We demonstrated that the nonspecific CD8+CD25+ Tr cells expressing forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), perforin and granzyme B inhibited in vitro T cell proliferation and in vivo OVA-specific CD4+ T cell-dependent and independent CD8+ CTL responses and antitumor immunity. CD8+CD25+ Tr cells’ suppressive effect is possibly mediated through its inhibition of DC maturation, down-regulation of secretion of Th1 polarization cytokines by DCs and its induction of T cell anergy via cell-to-cell contact. The nonspecific CD8+CD25+ Tr cells acquired antigen specificity by uptake of DCOVA-released EXOOVA expressing pMHC I and enhanced its effect on inhibition of OVA-specific CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor immunity by 10-folds. The principles elucidated in this study may have significant implications not only in antitumor immunity, but also in other sectors of immunology (e.g, autoimmunity and transplantation).
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
CommitteeMeng, Q.; Saxena, A.; Krahn, J.; Qureshi, M.; Sami, A.; Kung, S.
Regulatory T cells