Fortification of pureed foods for long-term care residents
Adolphe, Jennifer Lea
Elderly people living in long-term care (LTC) are at risk for malnutrition. Those who consume a pureed diet may be particularly at risk because of the food restrictions required on a pureed diet. Fortification of pureed foods with micronutrients may be an effective technique to treat malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to develop fortified pureed foods to incorporate into a menu at a LTC facility to assess if nutrient intakes and serum vitamin levels increased. Fortification levels were determined using a combination of two techniques: the Dietary Reference Intakes report on planning formula, Estimated Average Requirement plus two standard deviations of intake; and Health Canada’s method of using a defined nutrient contribution to the total daily intake. Fortification levels for 11 vitamins and 9 minerals were determined, which allowed for formulation of a vitamin/mineral mix and a vitamin-only mix. Seven pureed foods were fortified and triangle sensory tests were performed to determine whether fortification changed the flavour of the foods. Panelists were able to discriminate between the unfortified and vitamin/mineral fortified mix samples (P > 0.05). When the vitamin-only fortified foods were subjected to the triangle test, the panelists were unable to detect a difference (P < 0.05).Four vitamin-fortified foods per day were incorporated into the pureed menu at a LTC facility. Nutrient intakes (n = 10) and serum vitamin B12, folate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (n = 11) were analyzed at baseline and 8 weeks after the intervention. Nutrient intakes increased after the intervention for all vitamins assessed (P < 0.01). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and folate levels increased from 41 ± 21 nmol/L and 10.7 ± 4.9 nmol/L at baseline to 66 ± 11 nmol/L and 25.2 ± 6.4 nmol/L after the intervention (P < 0.01). Serum vitamin B12 levels did not change (P > 0.05).The development of acceptable vitamin-fortified pureed foods is feasible and fortified pureed foods are an effective way to increase the nutritional status of LTC residents.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
SupervisorDahl, Wendy; Whiting, Susan J.
CommitteeVerrall, Tanya; Paterson, Phyllis G.; Berenbaum, Shawna; Basran, Jenny
Copyright DateOctober 2007