Market, capital, and competition : the development of Chinese-language newspapers in Toronto since the 1970s
This is a study of the development of Chinese-language newspapers in Canada since the 1970s. In contrast to the assimilationist view, which sees the ethnic press as mainly a cultural institution, the present study examines the Chinese press as a business and explains the recent development of Chinese papers in Canada in terms of economic and social forces. More specifically, this thesis shows how the recent development of Chinese newspapers in Toronto is related to changes in market, capital, and competition. Based on evidence from field research in Toronto and from recent censuses, this study has three major findings. First, the Chinese newspaper market in Canada has expanded significantly after the 1970s because the size of the readership market has increased and its composition has also changed, thus raising newspaper consumption. The readership market, made up of a growing segment of affluent Chinese consumers, stimulates the expansion of the advertising market, which has been patronized by both Chineseand particularly non-Chinese firms which place advertisements to appeal to Chinese consumers. The growing readership and advertising markets have provided new business opportunities which help Chinese newspapers to grow. Second, the growth of Chinese newspapers in Canada has been directly associated with offshore Chinese investments. Attracted by the expansion of the Chinese newspaper market, media groups in East Asia have made three major investments in Canada since the 1970s. Each major development of the Chinese newspapers since the 1970s has been influenced by a major offshore capital investment. Third, competitions brought in more capital investments and improvement to Chinese newspapers with respect to news reporting, production, and advertising services. The competition among Chinese newspaper can be attributed partly to diverse readerships that demand more than one newspaper. Probably more important is that well financed media groups in East Asia target similar readerships in Canada, and as a result, there has been tense competition. This study concludes that changes in market, capital, and competition have played an important role in the development of Chinese newspapers in Canada after the 1970s. The study indicates the importance of economic forces in the study in immigrant cosmopolitan newspapers and it suggests the need to consider economic factors in addition to cultural causes in understanding expansion of ethnic press in Canada.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
CommitteeLi, Peter S.
Copyright DateSeptember 1999
foreign language press