Individual creatine pool size and responsiveness associated with creatine supplementation
Burke, Darren Gerard
The purpose of this thesis was to determine ways to maximize creatine uptake and retention during creatine supplementation. Since there are many factors that affect muscle creatine concentrations, a series of studies were performed. In the first study, the purpose was to determine if á-lipoic acid aided creatine uptake and retention. It was hypothesized that á-lipoic acid would increase creatine uptake, because it has been found to increase glucose disposal in animal studies and because creatine uptake has been found to be related to increased glucose transport. Results showed that phosphocreatine and total creatine increased following supplement intervention. In the second study, the purpose was to develop an optimal dose of creatine in order to minimize urinary excretion of creatine. It was hypothesized that individuals with more lean tissue mass would excrete less urinary creatine during consumption of the same loading dose. There was a high negative correlation between lean tissue mass and urine creatine excretion. Regression equations were developed for the relationship between lean tissue mass and urine total creatine and used to determine the amount of creatine to ingest relative to lean tissue mass that would result in minimal creatine losses in urine. Based on these results, a creatine dose of 0.22 [right arrow] 0.25 g/kg lean tissue mass/d was recommended. In the third study, the purpose was to determine if a habitual vegetarian diet resulted in lower muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations compared to an omnivorous diet. A secondary purpose was to determine if creatine supplementation and weight training resulted in greater increases in muscle metabolite content, muscle fiber area, lean tissue mass, and strength in vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians. Results indicated that vegetarians had lower resting total creatine concentration, and that creatine supplementation and weight training led to greater increases in muscle phosphocreatine and total creatine in vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians (p < 0.0125). The supplement and exercise intervention eliminated the differences in intramuscular total creatine concentration that existed prior to the study. Type II muscle fiber area, lean tissue mass, total work output, and 1-RM bench press increased to a greater extent following creatine supplementation compared to placebo supplementation (p < 0.017), with no difference between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
DepartmentCollege of Kinesiology
ProgramCollege of Kinesiology
CommitteeFaulkner, Robert A.; Chilibeck, Philip D.
Copyright DateSeptember 2001