Effectiveness of the probation and parole service delivery model (PPSDM) in reducing recidivism
In 2001, the province of Ontario implemented a new policy aimed at incorporating “best practices” from the literature into probation and parole services. This new policy, named the Probation and Parole Service Delivery Model (PPSDM), has several objectives, including: a) employ assessment-based decisions; b) assume a case management approach in probation and parole supervision; c) consider risk to reoffend and criminogenic needs in intervention and supervision; d) reserve the highest level of supervision for those most at risk to reoffend; and, e) use the least intrusive levels of intervention necessary while ensuring public safety. The policy also included the development of five supervision “streams” based on risk level, criminogenic needs, and other factors, for which supervision and intervention standards differ (Côté, 2003). A random sample of 200 from each of the five streams was chosen from 2004 and 2005 and matched to a sample supervised prior to PPSDM implementation (from 1998) resulting in an overall sample of 2890 offenders. The groups were compared on various measures of recidivism to determine whether the PPSDM has been effective in reducing recidivism. No significant differences in recidivism rates were found between the comparison and PPSDM groups. However, the recidivism was marginally less severe for the PPSDM groups, along with higher rates of “fail to comply” type offences. These results suggest possible increased enforcement of technical violations, which may have contributed to the lack of significant differences in recidivism rates. Results are discussed in relation to effective correctional practices and policy implementation.
DegreeMaster of Arts (M.A.)
SupervisorWormith, J. Stephen
CommitteeWong, Stephen C. P.; Farthing, Gerald; Dell, Colleen