Distribution and frequency of myeloid and t cell populations in the small intestine of newborn and weaned calves
Fries, Patrick Norbert
The development of mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) in cattle is poorly understood and an analysis of myeloid cells in the bovine small intestine is required to increase our knowledge in this area. The phenotype, frequency and distribution of mucosal myeloid and lymphoid lamina propria leukocytes (LPL) and intraepithelial leukocytes (IEL) in the ileum and jejunum of newborn calves (3-5 weeks old) were analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC). LPL and IEL were isolated through the use of chemical and enzymatic incubations. Costaining with a CD45-specific monoclonal antibody allowed us to exclude all non-leukocytic cells from our analysis of IEL and LPL. The morphology of CD45+CD11c+MHC Class II+ cells isolated from the lamina propria (LP) of ileum and jejunum showed myeloid characteristics, validating the use of CD11c and MHC Class II co-expression to identify myeloid cells. Regional differences in the frequency and number of leukocytes isolated from the IEL and LP compartments of the ileum and jejunum were analyzed in newborn calves. The CD11cHiCD14+ and CD335+ NK cell populations were significantly more abundant in the ileum than the jejunum. IHC was then used to identify the distribution of myeloid cells within the intestine. This analysis confirmed the presence of a variety of myeloid cell populations within the LP. Furthermore, CD11c+ cells were uniquely distributed within the jejunal, but not the ileal IEL compartment. In contrast, CD11b+ cells were present in the ileal, but absent from the jejunal, IEL compartment. A comparison of myeloid cell populations isolated from jejunum and blood dentified distinct mucosal DC populations, such as CD11c+CD13+ cells, which were present in he jejunum but absent from blood. The phenotype, frequency and distribution of IEL and LPL in the ileum and jejunum of weaned calves (6 months old) were then investigated. Significant regional differences were observed when comparing mucosal T cell populations with CD8+ and γδ T cells more abundant in the ileum and CD4+ T cells more abundant in the jejunum. Proportionally, there were no significant differences between the frequency and number of myeloid populations in the two regions. IHC was, once again, used to confirm these unique distributions of cells within each region. CD11b+ cells were present in the LP of both the ileum and jejunum, although a small number of CD11b+ cells were found in the ileal epithelium. CD4+ T cells were restricted to the LP, while CD8+ and γδ T cells were restricted to the IEL compartment. Significant age-related changes were observed when comparing mucosal leukocyte populations in the ileum and jejunum of newborn and 6 month old calves. In the ileum there was an age-related enrichment of CD8+ and γδ T cells, while in the jejunum there was enrichment in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In contrast, total myeloid (CD11c+MHC Class II+) cells number remained unchanged but there was a significant age-related enrichment of DC subpopulations (CD13, CD26, CD205). In conclusion, the ileum and jejunum of the newborn calf was populated by diverse myeloid subpopulations, some of which were distinct from myeloid subpopualtions identified in blood. Furthermore, the total number of CD11cHiMHC Class II+ myeloid cells isolated from a 10 cm segment of intestine did not change with age. If neonatal DCs are functionally equivalent to DCs present in weaned calves then the neonatal mucosal immune system appears to have an equivalent capacity to acquire and present antigens acquired from diet, commensal microflora, or pathogens. The one limitation to this conclusion may be the marked difference in the distribution of intraepithelial DC and macrophage distribution when comparing newborn and weaned calves.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
CommitteeHill, Janet; Qualtiere, Lou; van Kessel, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker
lamina propria leukocytes