Modeling relays for power system protection studies
Aquiles Perez, Sandro Gianny
Numerical relays are the result of the application of microprocessor technology in relay industry. Numerical relays have the ability to communicate with its peers, are economical and are easy to operate, adjust and repair. Modeling of digital and numerical relays is important to adjust and settle protection equipment in electrical facilities and to train protection personnel. Designing of numerical relays is employed to produce new prototypes and protection algorithms. Computer models of numerical relays for the study of protection systems are greatly enhanced when working along with an electromagnetic transient program (emtp). A literature survey has revealed that previous modeling techniques presented a lack of automation in the generation of relay models, or show high complexity in linking the numerical relay models with the power system modeled in the emtp. This thesis describes a new approach of modeling and designing of numerical relays. The proposed methodology employs a Visual C++-based program (PLSA) to obtain from the user the specifications of the relay to be designed, and to process this information to generate the FORTRAN code that represents the functional blocks of the relay. This generated code is incorporated in a PSCAD/EMTDC case using a resource called component, which facilitates the creation of user-custom models in PSCAD/EMTDC. Convenient electrical and logical signals are connected to the inputs and outputs of the PSCAD/EMTDC component. Further additions of digital relay models into the PSCAD/EMTDC case constitute the protection system model. The thesis describes a procedure for designing distance and differential relay models, but the methodology may be extended to design models of other relay elements. A number of protection system studies were performed with the structure created with the proposed methodology. Adjustment of distance and differential relays were studied. Relay performance under CT saturation and the effects of the removal of anti-aliasing analog filter were investigated. Local and remote backup distance protection of transmission lines was simulated. The adjustment of differential protection of power transformer to overcome the effects of inrush current was performed. Power transformer differential protection responses to internal and external faults were considered. Additionally, a set of tests were performed to investigate the consistency of the relay models generated with the proposed methodology. The results showed that the numerical relay models respond satisfactorily according with the expected results of the tests.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
SupervisorSidhu, Tarlochan S.; Sachdev, Mohinder S.
CommitteeNguyen, Ha H.; Meda, Venkatesh; Karki, Rajesh; Faried, Sherif O.; Varma, Rajiv
Copyright DateApril 2006
Electromagnetic transient program