Synchronization of weak indoor GPS signals with doppler frequency offset using a segmented matched filter and accumulation
Recent government regulations for Enhanced 911 locating of wireless handsets require accuracy to within 50 and 300 meters. Two technologies under consideration are triangulation using existing wireless base stations and location using global positioning satellites (GPS). Satellite positioning is the leading candidate, however, reception of GPS signals within large buildings is difficult and considerable research is devoted to this topic. Conventional GPS receivers require line of sight to at least four satellites and, under outdoor conditions, the expected signal level is about -160 dBW. Within large buildings, detection is very difficult because there is high thermal noise and some satellite signals can be attenuated to less than -185 dBW while others can suffer little attenuation. In order to construct the pseudo-ranges necessary for position finding, the receiver must synchronize to the incoming codephase of each satellite and must operate with substantial Doppler frequency offset caused by satellite motion. This thesis investigates the application of a parallel non-coherent spread spectrum synchronizer previously implemented as a very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuit. The circuit processes one millisecond of incoming signal and uses a segmented matched filter (SMF) by which the segmentation provides some tolerance to Doppler shift. The thesis presents simulation results of averaging for tens of seconds. Through simulation, the SMF is compared with a transversal matched filter (TMF) under conditions of no Doppler shift; coherent and non-coherent integration are discussed. The simulation is conducted at 290 K (17°C) such that the Boltzmann noise is -204 dBW/Hz, with a GPS signal bandwidth of 2 MHz and signal level of -185 dBW, and the receiver input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is -44 dB. The SMF is applied using differing segment lengths to high-sensitivity GPS data from indoor and urban simulated GPS data. The results demonstrate the SMF’s ability to tolerate Doppler frequency offsets while allowing for long integration times to detect the weak GPS signals.
DegreeMaster of Engineering (M.Eng.)
SupervisorDodds, David E.
CommitteeDegenstein, Douglas A.; Bolton, Ronald J.; Salt, J. Eric