Canadian Natives and nationalism
The thesis argues that the Canadian Native Movement since 1969 is better characterized as a nationalist movement rather than a "new social movement." The new social movement theories of Alain Touraine and Alberto Melucci are examined with regard to the characteristics they ascribe to ethnonationalist movements. Both theories are found wanting in several respects. For example, Touraine specifically excludes ethno-nationalist movements from the parameters of his argument, while Melucci wrongly assumes that ethnic identity is a phenomenon which has gained a greater importance in recent years. In fact, ethnic identity has historically been a central issue to ethno-nationalists. The similarities between Native ethnic identity and other types of ethnic identities, as apparent in nationalist ideology, are examined. The conclusion is that the Native movement is best characterized as a nationalist movement. However, theories of nationalism do not sufficiently explain the causes of ethno-nationalism. New social movement theories provide some elucidation regarding this. Also, resource mobilization theory as developed by John McCarthy and Mayer Zald provide further factors that explain the emergence of ethno-nationalist movements.