Mechanisms of environmental tobacco smoke and benzo[a]pyrene induced cardiovascular injury and the protective role of resveratrol
Despite extensive research, the mechanisms behind cardiovascular effects of subchronic environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) remain unclear, but may be related to ETS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. Additionally, the protective role of resveratrol (RES), a natural antioxidant available in red grapes, is controversial. We hypothesized that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) component of ETS is responsible for causing adverse cardiovascular effects. We also hypothesized that the administration of RES is protective against the adverse cardiovascular effects of ETS. In order to address these hypotheses, male juvenile pigs (4-weeks old) were exposed to ETS or ambient air for 28 consecutive days (1 hr/day) and effects compared to 7 days of i.v. injection of the PAH, benzo-a-pyrene (BAP; 5 mg/kg daily). In another experiment, pigs were sham-exposed or ETS-exposed, with or without oral RES treatment (5mg/kg daily). In all experiments, endothelial and left ventricular function were assessed by flow mediated dilation (FMD), and echocardiography, respectively, while blood pressure was evaluated by oscillometry. At the termination of each experiment, serum nitrotyrosine, total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured as well as hepatic and pulmonary ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity to indicate cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression. Finally, the correlation between pulmonary inflammation and adverse cardiovascular effects was investigated by measuring total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count as well as leukocyte elastase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the termination of each experiment. ETS exposure, but not BAP treatment, resulted in a significant impairment of FMD (P0.05). However, a trend pointing to an increase in ejection fraction (EF) was noted (P=0.072). ETS, BAP and RES treatments failed to have any effect on blood pressure (P>0.05). BAP injection caused a significant increase in serum nitrotyrosine (P=0.0146) and CRP (P=0.012), but not serum NOx levels (P>0.05). In contrast, ETS exposure resulted in a significant increase in CRP serum levels (P=0.0092), a trend pointing to increased serum nitrotyrosine (P=0.105), and no change in serum NOx levels (P>0.05). The increased nitrotyrosine and CRP with ETS exposure was not reversed by RES administration (P>0.05). ETS exposure increased EROD activity in the lung (P=0.0093), but not the liver (P=0.12). In contrast, BAP treatment had the opposite effect (lung EROD: P=0.621, liver EROD: P=0.01), while RES administration had no effect (P>0.05). ETS exposure (P=0.0139), but not BAP treatment (P=0.723), resulted in increased WBC count in BAL fluid which was not affected by RES administration (P>0.05). These results show that ETS exposure causes lung inflammation, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress-mediated inactivation of nitric oxide and impaired endothelial function. In contrast, BAP failed to alter endothelial function, downstream of the lung, despite systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress. Furthermore, RES failed to restore endothelial function, or decrease systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Taken together, these results suggest either that pulmonary inflammatory responses or pulmonary increases in CYP1A1 activity may be more important links to endothelial dysfunction than systemic inflammation and nitric oxide bioactivity. The beneficial effects of RES by itself are manifested only at the cardiac level by improving the ejection fraction, but the work in this thesis failed to detect any ability of RES to ameliorate ETS cardiovascular effects.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
CommitteeBlakley, Barry; Nakatsu, Kanji; Wu, Lily; Gordon, John; Hiebert, Linda
Copyright DateDecember 2010
environmental tobacco smoke