TIP trajectory tracking of flexible-joint manipulators
In most robot applications, the control of the manipulator’s end-effector along a specified desired trajectory is the main concern. In these applications, the end-effector (tip) of the manipulator is required to follow a given trajectory. Several methods have been so far proposed for the motion control of robot manipulators. However, most of these control methods ignore either joint friction or joint elasticity which can be caused by the transmission systems (e.g. belts and gearboxes). This study aims at development of a comprehensive control strategy for the tip-trajectory tracking of flexible-joint robot manipulators. While the proposed control strategy takes into account the effect of the friction and the elasticity in the joints, it also provides a highly accurate motion for the manipulator’s end-effector. During this study several approaches have been developed, implemented and verified experimentally/numerically for the tip trajectory tracking of robot manipulators. To compensate for the elasticity of the joints two methods have been proposed; they are a composite controller whose design is based on the singular perturbation theory and integral manifold concept, and a swarm controller which is a novel biologically-inspired controller and its concept is inspired by the movement of real biological systems such as flocks of birds and schools of fishes. To compensate for the friction in the joints two new approaches have been also introduced. They are a composite compensation strategy which consists of the non-linear dynamic LuGre model and a Proportional-Derivative (PD) compensator, and a novel friction compensation method whose design is based on the Work-Energy principle. Each of these proposed controllers has some advantages and drawbacks, and hence, depending on the application of the robot manipulator, they can be employed. For instance, the Work-Energy method has a simpler form than the LuGre-PD compensator and can be easily implemented in industrial applications, yet it provides less accuracy in friction compensation. In addition to design and develop new controllers for flexible-joint manipulators, another contribution of this work lays in the experimental verification of the proposed control strategies. For this purpose, experimental setups of a two-rigid-link flexible-joint and a single-rigid-link flexible-joint manipulators have been employed. The proposed controllers have been experimentally tested for different trajectories, velocities and several flexibilities of the joints. This ensures that the controllers are able to perform effectively at different trajectories and speeds. Besides developing control strategies for the flexible-joint manipulators, dynamic modeling and vibration suppression of flexible-link manipulators are other parts of this study. To derive dynamic equations for the flexible-link flexible-joint manipulators, the Lagrange method is used. The simulation results from Lagrange method are then confirmed by the finite element analysis (FEA) for different trajectories. To suppress the vibration of flexible manipulators during the manoeuvre, a collocated sensor-actuator is utilized, and a proportional control method is employed to adjust the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. Based on the controllability of the states and using FEA, the optimum location of the piezoelectric along the manipulator is found. The effect of the controller’s gain and the delay between the input and output of the controller are also analyzed through a stability analysis.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
SupervisorFotouhi, Reza; Nikiforuk, Peter N.
CommitteeChen, Daniel; Sepehri, Nariman; Burton, Richard T.; Wegner, Leon D.
Copyright DateDecember 2009