Determination of the Structural Allosteric Inhibitory Mechanism of Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase
Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase (EC 126.96.36.199; DHDPS), the product of the dapA gene, is an enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate and S-aspartate-β-semialdehyde (ASA) into dihydrodipicolinate via an unstable heterocyclic intermediate, (4S)-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(2S)-dipicolinic acid. DHDPS catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of ʟ-lysine and meso-diaminopimelate; each of which is a necessary cross-linking component between peptidoglycan heteropolysacharide chains of bacterial cell walls. Therefore, strong inhibition of DHDPS would result in disruption of meso-diaminopimelate and ʟ-lysine biosynthesis in bacteria leading to decreased bacterial growth and cell lysis. Much attention has been given to targeting the active site for inhibition; however DHDPS is subject to natural feedback inhibition by ʟ-lysine at an allosteric site. In DHDPS from Campylobacter jejuni ʟ-lysine is known to act as a partial uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to pyruvate and a partial mixed inhibitor with respect to ASA. Little is known about how the protein structure facilitates the natural inhibition mechanism and mode of allosteric signal transduction. This work presents ten high resolution crystal structures of Cj-DHDPS and the mutant Y110F-DHDPS with various substrates and inhibitors, including the first reported structure of DHDPS with ASA bound to the active site. As a body of work these structures reveal residues and conformational changes which contribute to the inhibition of the enzyme. Understanding these structure function relationships will be valuable for the design of future antibiotic lead compounds. When an inhibitor binds to the allosteric site there is meaningful shrinkage in the solvent accessible volume between 33% and 49% proportional to the strength of inhibition. Meanwhile at the active site the solvent accessible volume increases between 5% and 35% proportional to the strength of inhibition. Furthermore, inhibitor binding at the allosteric site consistently alters the distance between hydroxyls of the catalytic triad (Y137-T47-Y111') which is likely to affect local pKa's. Changes in active site volume and modification of the catalytic triad would inhibit the enzyme during the binding and condensation of ASA. The residues H56, E88, R60 form a network of hydrogen bonds to close the allosteric site around the inhibitor and act as a lid. Comparison of ʟ-lysine and bislysine bound to wt-DHDPS and Y110F-DHDPS indicates that enhanced inhibition of bislysine is most likely due to increased binding strength rather than altering the mechanism of inhibition. When ASA binds to the active site the network of hydrogen bonds among H56, E88 and R60 is disrupted and the solvent accessible volume of the allosteric site expands by 46%. This observation provides some explanation for the reduced affinity of ʟ-lysine in high ASA concentrations. ʟ-Lysine, but not other inhibitors, is found to induce dynamic domain movements in the wt-DHDPS. These domain movements do not appear to be essential to the inhibition of the enzyme but may play a role in cooperativity between monomers or governing protein dynamics. The moving domain connects the allosteric site to the dimer-dimer interface. Several residues at the weak dimer interface have been identified as potentially involved in dimer-dimer communication including: I172, D173, V176, I194, Y196, S200, N201, K234, D238, Y241, N242 and K245. These residues are not among any previously identified as important for formation of the quaternary structure.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
SupervisorSanders, David A.; Palmer, David R.
CommitteeBurgess, Ian J.; Leung, Adelaine K.
Copyright DateNovember 2015
antibiotic drug design