This investigation used a one-group pretest-posttest design to examine the relationship between a tier three reading intervention program (i.e., a program designed for students that have failed to respond to regular (tier one) and resource (tier two) supports), and grade-level reading gains, as measured using the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (Fountas & Pinnell, 2010), for 140 students between grades two and four. All students included in this study began well-below their expected grade-level in reading (i.e., two or more grade-levels below). In order to describe the gains made in grade-level reading ability, the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (Fountas & Pinnell, 2010) was used pretest and posttest to track reading gains. Results from descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, t-tests, and a multiple regression were indicative of positive reading gains. Approximately 74% of participants achieved grade-level reading gains that had the potential to close the reading gap (i.e., 0.75 grade-levels or more as measured using the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (Fountas & Pinnell, 2010)). These results were similar for all participants regardless of gender, diagnosis status (i.e., garden-variety poor reader, physical disability, and learning/attentional disability) or first language status (i.e., English as an additional language or English). This study provides preliminary evidence that this intervention is improving reading outcomes for tier three students. Moving forward, stakeholders of this division would be encouraged to develop a well-designed, structured mixed-methods research study with standardized assessment measures and planned follow-up.
DegreeMaster of Education (M.Ed.)
DepartmentEducational Psychology and Special Education
ProgramSchool and Counselling Psychology
CommitteeHellsten, Laurie; Claypool, Timothy; Koole, Margurite
Copyright DateNovember 2015
Response to Intervention Tier Three Reading