Development of diffraction enhanced computed tomography for imaging joints
This research was inspired by a need to discover more refined technologies for imaging growing joints to facilitate research in childhood arthritis, which is among the most common chronic conditions of childhood. The objective of this project was to develop and test a new technology for imaging growing joints using diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) combined with computed tomography (CT) using a synchrotron radiation source. DEI is a modality that derives contrast from x-ray refraction, extinction (an extreme form of scatter rejection), and absorption (as in conventional radiography). The ability to add to an image’s contrast from the refraction of x-rays, rather than that solely from absorption, generates more detailed visualization of soft tissue and of interfaces between tissues. Additionally, refraction-based imaging allows reduction of absorbed radiation dose by the sample tissue. For this research, stifle joints from four-week piglet joints were imaged by DEI-CT using the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamline at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) synchrotron facility. This new modality for imaging growing joints incorporated a novel feedback control to maintain precise alignment of the analyzer crystal, which is used to re- diffract the beam that passes through the object, throughout the scanning procedure. Results showed that high-resolution DEI-CT provided three-dimensional images of the bone and soft tissue of growing joints at a resolution on the order of microns. Fine detail within and between all joint structures and tissues, including striking detail of cartilage vasculature, a iii characteristic of growing but not mature joints, was demonstrated. This report documents for the first time that DEI combined with CT and using a synchrotron radiation source can generate more detailed images of intact, growing joints than is currently available from conventional imaging modalities. The development of this high resolution imaging system, which provides excellent contrast for both hard and soft tissues, fills an important gap in the suite of imaging modalities available for joint research, particularly during growth.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
SupervisorChapman, Leroy D.; Rosenberg, Alan M.
CommitteeKelly, Michael; Cooper, David
Copyright DateSeptember 2015
diffraction enhanced imaging, refraction imaging, analyzer-based imaging, multiple image radiography, refraction-sensitive imaging, analyzer crystal control, joint imaging, juvenile arthritis