THE EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT FASTING AND A HIGH PROTEIN DIET IN INDIVIDUALS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Intermittent fasting (IF) is a recently popularized meal timing strategy whereby individuals abstain continuously from any energy intake for 16 to 20 hours each day, subsequently condensing energy intake into a short period spanning 4 to 8 hours. We aimed to test the effects of intermittent fasting in 10 individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in conjunction with recommendations to consume a high protein diet in a 6 to 8 week withdrawal study. This study consisted of three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. During the 2-week baseline and intervention phases participants consumed meals at regular times. Biochemical, anthropometric, and physical activity measurements were taken at the end of each phase. Participants reported morning, afternoon and evening self-monitored blood glucose and fasting duration on a daily basis, in addition to completing a remote food photography diary three times within each study phase. Despite the short duration of the intervention phase, intermittent fasting led to significant decreases in weight, BMI, morning SMBG, and overall reductions in waist circumference, C-reactive protein, energy intake, carbohydrate intake, and fat intake. There were significant variations between participants in response to intermittent fasting in respect to changes in lipids and insulin sensitivity, which could not be explained by baseline biochemical or anthropometric measures, fasting duration, energy intake, or physical activity. Upon cessation of intermittent fasting, biochemical changes regressed towards baseline values during the follow-up period. Intermittent fasting was well tolerated by most participants, and no severe adverse events were noted. Morning nausea was the most common complaint, which abruptly ceased when medication timing was changed.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentPharmacy and Nutrition
SupervisorArnason, Terra; Mansell, Kerry
CommitteeShoker, Ahmed; Davis, Karen; Arnold, Bart; Chizen, Donna
Copyright DateSeptember 2015
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
High Protein Diet
Self-Monitored Blood Glucose
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