Development of A Kinetic Model For Loop-Free Colonoscopy Technology
The colonoscope is an important tool in diagnosis and management of diseases of the colon. One of the ongoing challenges with this device is that the colonoscope may form a loop together with the colon during the procedure. The result of the loop is that further insertion of the scope in the colon may not be possible. The loop may also cause risks of perforation of the colon and pain in the patient. There are currently several existing devices to overcome loop formation in colonoscopy, some of which have been introduced in clinical work. However, empirical assessment shows that these devices do not work very well. This is the motivation for the research presented in this thesis. In this thesis, a new paradigm of thinking, “doctor-assisted colonoscopy,” is proposed to overcome loop formation. In this new approach, the physician’s role is enhanced with new information that is acquired by sensors outside the human body and inferred from the mathematical model. It is referred to as a kinetic model due to the fact that this model describes the kinetic behaviour of the scope. This thesis is devoted to development of this kinetic model. In this study, the model of the colonoscope and the model of the colon are developed based on the Timoshenko beam theory, and parameters in both models are determined by the experiments. The following conclusions then are made: (1) self-locking of the colonoscope is the most basic cause for a loop to occur, while structural instability of the colonsocope is dependent on the self-locking; (2) both the scope and the colon can be well represented with the Timoshenko beam elements and the Linear Complementary Problem (LCP) formulation derived from Signorini’s law, and Coulom’s law for representation of interactions between the colon and scope is adequate; (3) there are effects from the location, looping, and tip deflection of the scope on flexural rigidity of the scope. Approximately, the flexural rigidity of the CF-Q160L colonoscope ranges from 300 to 650 N•cm2, and its accuracy is proven by a good agreement between the model predicted result and experimental result; (4) Rayleigh damping for the CF-Q160L colonoscope depends more on the mass matrix [M] of the colonoscope than the stiffness matrix [K], which is evident by the large coefficient value of “alpha” (0.3864) and the small coefficient value of “beta” (0.0164). The contributions of this thesis are: (1) the finding that the main cause of the loop is not structural instability of the colonoscope but rather self-locking of the colonoscope, which could lead to design of a “new-generation” colonoscope to avoid the loop; (2) a systematic evaluation of the existing colonoscopy technologies based on the well-proven Axiomatic Design Theory (ADT), which will serve as a guideline for the development of future new colonoscopes in future; (3) an approach to developing a kinetic model of the colonoscope useful to modeling similar objects such as a catheter guide-wire; (4) a novel ex-vivo colonoscopy test-bed with the kinetic and kinematic measurements useful for validation of new designs in colonoscopy technology and also useful for training physicians who perform the colonoscopy procedure; and (5) a new paradigm of thinking for colonoscopy called “doctor-assisted colonoscopy,” which has potential applications to other medical procedures such as catheter-based procedures.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
CommitteeJohnston, James; Wu, Fangxiang; Boulfiza, Mohamed; Moser, Michael
Copyright DateSeptember 2013