Biochemical analysis of HIV restriction factors : Single domain deoxycytidine deaminases APOBEC3A and APOBEC3H
The APOBEC3 (Apo3) family of proteins are single stranded (ss) DNA cytosine deaminases (C → U). They are grouped into two different structural groups, the single catalytic domain Apo3 enzymes (Apo3A, Apo3C, and Apo3H) and the double catalytic domain Apo3 enzymes (Apo3B, Apo3D, Apo3F, and Apo3G). Apo3G has been implicated in protection from HIV proliferation by becoming encapsidated into budding HIV virions and subsequently mutationally inactivating the synthesized provirus. This largely occurs in the absence of HIV viral infectivity factor (Vif) which mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of Apo3G. Apo3G is a processive enzyme, able to catalyze numerous deaminations in a 5'CCC motif in a single interaction with a substrate. There is a paucity of biochemical data on other Apo3 family members. We performed basic biochemical assays that determined the relative specific activities, processivity, cytosine motif preferences, and binding affinities for DNA, of Apo3A and Apo3H using synthetic DNA substrates in deamination assays. We found Apo3A to be an enzyme with low processivity and Apo3H to be a highly processive enzyme; both of which deaminate a 5'TC motif. Using a reconstituted HIV replication assay we assessed if processivity is needed for efficient restriction of HIV. We were able to demonstrate that each, Apo3G, Apo3A, and Apo3H were able to catalyze deaminations during in vitro reverse transcription. The mutation profile of both Apo3A and Apo3H showed that the 5'TC motif preference was less effective compared to Apo3G in triggering missense and nonsense mutations in the HIV protease active site coding sequence. Nuclear DNA can become deaminated by the related Apo3 family member activation-induced deaminase (AID), when it is present in the nucleus of activated B cells. Apo3A and Apo3H are located in the nucleus but the extent of the damage they cause has only recently been investigated. Here we used an in vitro transcription assay to determine the efficiency of Apo3A and Apo3H deamination during transcription and found that, like AID, they are highly capable of causing deaminations during transcription. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrate that processivity is not necessary for an Apo3 enzyme to catalyze deaminations during HIV reverse transcription and that Apo3A and Apo3H can catalyze deaminations during DNA transcription that could damage host genomic DNA. These results imply a potential cost for maintaining nuclear deaminases.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentMicrobiology and Immunology
ProgramMicrobiology and Immunology
CommitteeLuo, Yu; Kobryn, Kerri; Hayes, Sidney; Howard, Peter
Copyright DateJanuary 2013