ANTENATAL DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY: PREGNANCY AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES IN A POPULATION-BASED STUDY
Depression occurs in approximately 20% of pregnant women, and up to 25% of them experience anxiety. Several pregnancy complications and labour and delivery outcomes have been associated with antenatal depression and anxiety, such as higher rates of nausea and vomiting, bleeding, psychosomatic complaints, preterm labour and delivery complications. Neonatal outcomes include lower Apgar scores, shorter gestation, smaller head circumference, and increased admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit. Research Questions: 1. To examine the prevalence of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in this study sample. 2. To examine whether there is a difference in the association between observed pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes and major depression, when depression is episodic compared to when the depression is continuous. 3. To examine whether there is a difference in the association between observed pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes and mild depression, when the mild depression is episodic compared to when it is continuous. 4. To examine whether there is a difference in the association between observed pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes and anxiety, when anxiety is episodic compared to when it is continuous. Methods: The data for this study was collected for the Feelings in Pregnancy and Motherhood Study (FIP). This population-based study interviewed 649 participants three times: in the second trimester, the third trimester, and in the early postpartum. Participants were screened for depression and anxiety with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), using the validated cut-off scores of >12 and >4 respectively. Sociodemographic data as well as detailed risk behaviours, and sources of stress and coping, were explored. Finally, pregnancy, labour and delivery and neonatal complications were collected. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were completed. Results: Major depression in the second trimester was significantly associated with gestational diabetes (OR: 3.518; 95% CI 1.56, 7.93) and swelling/edema (OR: 2.099; 95% CI 1.13, 3.89). Major depression that occurred continuously throughout pregnancy was significantly associated with induced labour (2.417; 95% CI 0.99, 5.92) and antenatal bleeding/abruption (OR: 2.099; 95% CI 1.13, 3.89). Anxiety in the second trimester was significantly associated with caesarean birth (OR: 0.522; 95% CI 0.29, 0.95). Anxiety occurring continuously throughout pregnancy was significantly associated with swelling/edema (OR: 1.816; 95% CI 1.19, 2.77) and there was a significant interaction between age and anxiety that predicted epidural use during pregnancy: while age decreased in the participants who had anxiety in both trimesters, the likelihood of using an epidural increased. Finally, mild depression in the second trimester was significantly associated with antenatal bleeding/abruption (OR: 2.124; 95% CI 1.09, 4.14) and PROM (OR: 2.504; 95% CI 1.04, 6.05). Mild depression in the third trimester was associated with caesarean birth (OR: 0.298; 95% CI 0.10, 0.86). Mild depression that occurred continuously throughout pregnancy was significantly associated with the use of vacuum/forceps in delivery or an operative delivery (OR: 4.820; 95% CI 1.10, 21.16). Conclusions: These results show that episodic depression and anxiety can have a more profound impact on pregnancy complications and labour and delivery outcomes than continuous depression and anxiety. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that even mild depression can have a significant negative impact on pregnancy complications and labour and delivery outcomes. These results further highlight the imperative need for women to be screened and treated for depression and anxiety during pregnancy.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentCommunity Health and Epidemiology
ProgramCommunity and Population Health Science
SupervisorBowen, Angela; Muhajarine, Nazeem
CommitteeMirosh, Melissa; Lim, June; Janzen, Bonnie; Pahwa, Punam
Copyright DateDecember 2012