Power System Dynamics Enhancement Through Phase Unbalanced and Adaptive Control Schemes in Series FACTS devices
This thesis presents novel series compensation schemes and adaptive control techniques to enhance power system dynamics through damping Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) and low-frequency power oscillations: local and inter-area oscillations. Series capacitive compensation of transmission lines is used to improve power transfer capability of the transmission line and is economical compared to the addition of new lines. However, one of the impeding factors for the increased utilization of series capacitive compensation is the potential risk of SSR, where electrical energy is exchanged with turbine-generator shaft systems in a growing manner which can result in shaft damage. Furthermore, the fixed capacitor does not provide controllable reactance and does not aid in the low-frequency oscillations damping. The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers have the flexibility of controlling both real and reactive power which could provide an excellent capability for improving power system dynamics. Several studies have investigated the potential of using this capability in mitigating the low-frequency (electromechanical) as well as the subsynchronous resonance (SSR) oscillations. However, the practical implementations of FACTS devices are very limited due to their high cost. To address this issue, this thesis proposes a new series capacitive compensation concept capable of enhancing power system dynamics. The idea behind the concept is a series capacitive compensation which provides balanced compensation at the power frequency while it provides phase unbalance at other frequencies of oscillations. The compensation scheme is a combination of a single-phase Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) or Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) and a fixed series capacitors in series in one phase of the compensated transmission line and fixed capacitors on the other two phases. The proposed scheme is economical compared to a full three-phase FACTS counterpart and improves reliability of the device by reducing number of switching components. The phase unbalance during transients reduces the coupling strength between the mechanical and the electrical system at asynchronous oscillations, thus suppressing the build-up of torsional stresses on the generator shaft systems. The SSR oscillations damping capability of the schemes is validated through detailed time-domain electromagnetic transient simulation studies on the IEEE first and second benchmark models. Furthermore, as the proposed schemes provide controllable reactance through TCSC or SSSC, the supplementary controllers can be implemented to damp low-frequency power oscillations as well. The low-frequency damping capability of the schemes is validated through detail time-domain electromagnetic transient simulation studies on two machines systems connected to a very large system and a three-area, six-machine power system. The simulation studies are carried out using commercially available electromagnetic transient simulation tools (EMTP-RV and PSCAD/EMTDC). An adaptive controller consisting of a robust on-line identifier, namely a robust Recursive Least Square (RLS), and a Pole-Shift (PS) controller is also proposed to provide optimal damping over a wide range of power system operations. The proposed identifier penalizes large estimated errors and smooth-out the change in parameters during large power system disturbances. The PS control is ideal for its robustness and stability conditions. The combination results in a computationally efficient estimator and a controller suitable for optimal control over wider range of operations of a non-linear system such as power system. The most important aspect of the controller is that it can be designed with an approximate linearized model of the complete power system, and does not need to be re-tuned after it is commissioned. The damping capability of such controller is demonstrated through detail studies on a three-area test system and on an IEEE 12-bus test system. Finally, the adaptive control algorithm is developed on a Digital Signal Processing Board, and the performance is experimentally tested using hardware-in-the-loop studies. For this purpose, a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) is used, which is capable of simulating power system in real-time at 50 µs simulation time step. The RTDS facilitates the performance evaluation of a controller just like testing on a real power system. The experimental results match closely with the simulation results; which demonstrated the practical applicability of the adaptive controller in power systems. The proposed controller is computationally efficient and simple to implement in DSP hardware.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
DepartmentElectrical and Computer Engineering
SupervisorGokaraju, Ramakrishna; Faried, Sherif O.
CommitteeKlymyshyn, David M.; Burton, Richard T.; Chowdhury, Nurul A.; Mehr, Aryan S.; Annakkage, Udaya D.
Copyright DateApril 2012
Power system dynamics