Yield and protein of wheat and durum in Brown Soil Zone as affected by long-term tillage system and crop rotation
Three tillage-rotation experiments in the Brown soil zone showed that spring wheat and durum grain yield and protein were affected by tillage system, length of time in tillage system, crop sequence. During the initial 15 years of no-tillage (NT) monoculture wheat, grain yield and protein were equal or lower than minimum-till (MT) or conventional tillage (CT). These differences were attributed to reduced N availability with NT, likely from greater N immobilization (sequestration) in soil organic matter under NT. However, during the last several years, grain yield and protein with NT continuous wheat has been equal to higher than with MT practices. This may be due to improved management, specifically better control of foxtail barley and side banding of N at time of seeding, and/or simply a longer time in NT. When following non-cereal crop, spring wheat and durum had equal or higher yield and protein than wheat following wheat. In diversified rotations, the wheat or durum had highest yield under NT practices. Wheat on MT and NT fallow, with an extra 23 kg/ha fertilizer N applied, had higher grain protein than wheat on CT fallow but not higher grain yield. Durum grown on fallow after a pulse crop had higher yield and protein than that grown after fallow after durum.
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