Application of a mustard root bioassy to assess phytotoxicity of Group 2 herbicides
Group 2 herbicides exhibit high bioactivity at low concentrations in soil and may persist into the next growing season causing crop injury. A bioassay that is suitable for the detection of a range of Group 2 herbicides was developed; in this bioassay, a root growth inhibition of oriental mustard is used for the determination of the herbicide concentration in soil. The Group 2 herbicides included were: Everest (flucarbazone-sodium), Frontline (florasulam), Sundance (sulfosulfuron), and Odyssey (imazamox + imazethapyr). This bioassay was used to examine the degree of root inhibition by simultaneous application of two Group 2 herbicides. Application of varying levels of flucarbazone or sulfosulfuron combined with Odyssey resulted in root length inhibition that was comparable to the root length inhibition caused by application of flucarbazone alone or sulfosulfuron alone and Odyssey alone, possibly indicating an additive effect of these pairs of herbicides. Further studies are needed to examine which combinations of Group 2 herbicides under what environmental and soil conditions may result in “stacking” causing increased plant injury.
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