Dryland malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) experiments were initiated in north central Montana to evaluate the effects of planting, N, and S rates on grain yield and quality. Planting rates of 10, 15, and 20 seeds/ft2, nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 30, and 60 lbs N/acre, and S rates of 0, 10, and 20 lbs/acre were applied in all possible combinations to Metcalfe barley at 11 locations in 2004 and 2005. Optimal grain yields were generally achieved with a planting rate of 15 seeds/ft2, but 10 seeds/ft2 produced grain with the highest kernel plumpness and the highest grain protein content. Barley responses to N were similar to previously published data (i.e. increasing N resulted in higher yield and protein content but lower kernel plumpness). Sulfur fertilization had little effect on grain quality but increasing S significantly lowered grain yields at several locations.