Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. Insufficient or poorly available P can limit crop growth, requiring P fertilization. However, excess P can move from land to water, impairing water quality. Balancing P fertilization to maximize crop growth while limiting P loss requires a detailed knowledge of P forms and cycling. Different land use practices are expected to alter P cycling through differences in microbial populations, P inputs from vegetation and fertilizer, and management practices that affect soil chemical and physical properties. Understanding P cycling under different land uses can help to improve P use efficiency in agriculture. Presented here are the preliminary results of a research project investigating P forms and cycling in soils under different land uses in southwestern Saskatchewan.