A New Relaying Method for Third Zone Distance Relay Blocking During Power Swings
Kang, Don 1967-
Due to the increasing complexity of modern bulk power systems, the power swing identification, blocking, and protection have become more challenging than they used to be. Among various transmission line protection methods, distance relays are the most commonly used type. One of the advantages of using distance relays is the zoned protection which provides redundancy. However, the additional redundancy comes with a problem that it increases the probability of incorrect operation. For example, the undesired operation of the third zone distance protection during power swing scenarios has been attributed as one of the major causes for creating large-scale blackouts. Some research works in the literature investigate proper identification of stable and unstable power swing conditions. Most research works dwell on identification of power swing conditions but do not address how the scheme could be used for blocking the third zone of distance relays during stable power swings. Also, the current power swing detection schemes are often very complex to implement for a relaying engineer or are not fast enough for blocking the third zone distance element. This research proposes a reliable and fast methodology for the third zone blocking (TZB) during power swings. The new mathematical formulations and derivations are based on sound time tested power system theory and are simpler to understand for a relaying engineer to implement this technique. The algorithm proposed in the research can prevent unnecessary tripping of distance relays during power swings. The algorithm also overcomes the shortcomings of the conventional power swing identification methods when applied for the third zone blocking. A first zero-crossing (FZC) concept is introduced as the criteria for identifying stable power swing or out-of-step phenomena. The analysis is based on system stability point of view and utilizes power-angle equations. The proposed algorithm could be applied at every discrete time interval or time step of a distance relay to detect power swing points. It could also be applied to any transmission line in the power system by finding an equivalent single machine infinite bus (SMIB) configuration individually for each line on a real-time basis, which is one of the primary advantages of the proposed method. In the thesis work, the proposed technique is first demonstrated using a simple single machine infinite bus system. The TZB algorithm is then tested using a modified Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WSCC) power system configuration using Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) simulations. The code is written in MATLAB. The TZB method is then further analyzed using electromagnetic simulations with Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) on WSCC system. The proposed method uses small time step simulations (50 μs) to take various aspects of power system complexity into consideration, such as different harmonics presents in the system, synchronous machine operation at different speeds, travelling wave representation of transmission lines instead of purely lumped parameter representation, etc. The investigations as mentioned above and the results show that the proposed TZB scheme is a straightforward and reliable technique, involving only a few calculation steps, and could be applied to any power system configuration. The main novelty of this technique is that it does not require a priori stability study to find the relay settings unlike conventional power swing identification or distance relay blocking techniques. The inputs to the relay are basic electrical quantities which could be easily measured locally on any transmission line. The local measurements would make the implementation of the proposed TZB simpler for relaying applications compared to Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based techniques. In a WAMS based relaying technique - the cost associated with the communication network, reliability of the communication network, impact of communication delay on relay, etc all become factors for actual industry use.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
DepartmentElectrical and Computer Engineering
CommitteeKo , Seok-Bum; Burton , Rich; Karki , Rajesh; Chowdhury , Nurul
Copyright DateSeptember 2017
Distance relay, Power swing identification, Third zone blocking