VISUALIZATION OF ULTRASOUND INDUCED CAVITATION BUBBLES USING SYNCHROTRON ANALYZER BASED IMAGING
Ultrasound is recognized as the fastest growing medical modality for imaging and therapy. Being noninvasive, painless, portable, X-ray radiation-free and far less expensive than magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound is widely used in medicine today. Despite these benefits, undesirable bioeffects of high-frequency sound waves have raised concerns; particularly, because ultrasound imaging has become an integral part of prenatal care today and is increasingly used for therapeutic applications. As such, ultrasound bioeffects must be carefully considered to ensure optimal benefits-to-risk ratio. In this context, few studies have been done to explore the physics (i.e. ‘cavitation’) behind the risk factors. One reason may be associated with the challenges in visualization of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles in situ. To address this issue, this research aims to develop a synchrotron-based assessment technique to enable visualization and characterization of ultrasound-induced microbubbles in a physiologically relevant medium under standard ultrasound operating conditions. The first objective is to identify a suitable synchrotron X-ray imaging technique for visualization of ultrasound-induced microbubbles in water. Two synchrotron X-ray phase-sensitive imaging techniques, in-line phase contrast imaging (PCI) and analyzer-based imaging (ABI), were evaluated. Results revealed the superiority of the ABI method compared to PCI for visualization of ultrasound-induced microbubbles. The second main objective is to employ the ABI method to assess the effects of ultrasound acoustic frequency and power on visualization and mapping of ultrasound-induced microbubble patterns in water. The time-averaged probability of ultrasound-induced microbubble occurrence along the ultrasound beam propagation in water was determined using the ABI method. Results showed the utility of synchrotron ABI for visualizing cavitation bubbles formed in water by clinical ultrasound systems working at high frequency and output powers as low as used for therapeutic systems. It was demonstrated that the X-ray ABI method has great potential for mapping ultrasound-induced microbubble patterns in a fluidic environment under different ultrasound operating conditions of clinical therapeutic devices. Taken together, this research represents an advance in detection techniques for visualization and mapping of ultrasound-induced microbubble patterns using the synchrotron X-ray ABI method without usage of contrast agents. Findings from this research will pave the road toward the development of a synchrotron-based detection technique for characterization of ultrasound-induced cavitation microbubbles in soft tissues in the future.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
SupervisorChapman, Dean; Babyn, Paul
CommitteePickering, Ingrid; Baerwald, Angela; Zhang, Chris; Chen, Daniel
Copyright DateDecember 2016
analyzer based imaging
phase contrast imaging