Hog and cattle manure additions in the Black Soil Zone of Saskatchewan: agronomic considerations
Experiments were conducted in 1997 at two sites (Burr and Dixon) in the Black soil zone, east - central Saskatchewan, to examine the effects of different rates and methods of application of swine and cattle manure applied to previously unmanured soils. Liquid hog manure and solid feedlot cattle manure were land applied at nitrogen rates ranging from 74 kg / ha to 790 kg / ha and the effects on soil fertility and canola yield were assessed. There was considerable spatial and temporal variability in the nutrient concentrations within the hog and cattle manure used in the study. Land application of hog manure had a greater effect than cattle manure on increasing soil available nutrients and crop yield in the year of application. However, residual effects of the 1997 applications of cattle manure became apparent in 1998 in the form of higher yields than the control plots. Soil nitrate levels increased with increasing hog manure and urea application rates at both sites and this was mainly restricted to the top 30 cm. Appreciable amounts of residual inorganic N (~ 450 kg N /ha) remained in the soil after harvest at the high hog manure rate (~20000 gallons/acre) at the Burr site. Although extractable soil inorganic P and K levels were not significantly affected by manure additions, crop P and K uptake and straw concentrations increased with application rate. The soil pH and soluble salt levels were unaffected by hog and cattle manure additions at both sites in the first year of application. Grain and straw yields significantly increased following hog and cattle manure additions at Dixon, but these increases were not statistically significant at Burr due to high variability in soil properties across the plot area. The yield responses to application of manure are mainly attributed to their effect on soil nitrogen availability. The low (-6000 gallons / ac) hog manure application injected using a 30 cm spacing resulted in the highest yields at Burr, while the medium rate at Dixon (-7000 gallons /ac) was most effective.
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